Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. （40 points）
Rats and other animals need to be highly at tuned to social signals from others so that can identify friends to cooperate with and enemies to avoid. To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals form robotic rats.
They housed eight adult rats with two types of robotic rat- one social and one asocial一for 5 our days. The robots rats were quite minimalist, resembling a chunkier version of a computer mouse with wheels-to move around and colorful markings.
During the experiment, the social robot rat followed the living rats around, played with the same toys, and opened caged doors to let trapped rats escape. Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side
Next, the researchers trapped the robots in cages and gave the rats the opportunity to release them by pressing a lever.
Across 18 trials each, the living rats were 52 percent more likely on average to set the social robot free than the asocial one. This suggests that the rats perceived the social robot as a genuine social being. They may have bonded more with the social robot because it displayed behaviours like communal exploring and playing. This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn.
The readiness of the rats to befriend the social robot was surprising given its minimal design. The robot was the same size as a regular rat but resembled a simple plastic box on wheels.“We' d assumed we' d have to give it a moving head and tail, facial features, and put a scene on it to make it smell like a real rat, but that wasn’t necessary, ”says Janet Wiles at the University of Queensland in Australia, who helped with the research.
The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots. Similarly, children tend to treat robots as if they are fellow beings, even when they display only simple social signals.“ We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too,”says Wiles.
21. Quin and her colleagues conducted a test to see if rats can________
[A] pickup social signals from non-living rats
[B] distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one
[C] attain sociable traits through special training
[D] send out warning messages to their fellow
22. What did the social robot do during the experiment?
[A] It followed the social robot.
[B]It played with some toys.
[C] It set the trapped rats free.
[D]It moved around alone.
23. According to Quinn, the rats released the social robot because they________
[A] tried to practice a means of escape
[B] expected it to do the same in return
[C] wanted to display their intelligence
[D]considered that an interesting game
24. James Wiles notes that rats________
[A]can remember other rat's facial features
[B] differentiate smells better than sizes
[C] respond more to cations than to looks
[D]can be scared by a plastic box on wheels
25. It can be learned from the text that rats________
[A]appear to be adaptable to new surroundings
[B] are more socially active than other animals
C] behave differently from children in socializing
[D]are more sensitive to social cues than expected
21. 【答案】A pick up social signals from non-living rats
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Quinn and her colleagues和a test定位到第一段第二句。To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals from robotic rats. 为了查明这是否延伸到了非生物，Quinn和她的同事测试了老鼠能否从机器老鼠身上探测到社会信号。正确答案A是原文的同义替换。选项B的distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one区分友好的老鼠和敌对的老鼠，并未提及，是常识性干扰。选项C的attain sociable traits through special training通过特殊训练获得社交品质，原文并未提及，属于无中生有。选项D的send out warning messages to their fellow向它们的同伴发出警告信息，原文并未提及，属于无中生有。
22.【答案】D It moved around alone.
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词the asocial robot和experiment定位到第三段最后一句Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side.同时，不具有社交能力的机器人只能进行简单的前后左右移动。正确答案D It moved around alone.是原文的同义替换。选项A的It followed the social robot.它跟随具备社交能力的老鼠，与原文the social robot rat followed the living rats around不符，原文说的是具备社交能力的老鼠跟随真老鼠，属于张冠李戴。选项B的It played with some toys.它玩一些玩具，与原文不符，原文中说的是具备社交能力的老鼠玩同样的玩具，属于张冠李戴。选项C的It set the trapped rats free.它释放了被困的老鼠也与原文内容不符，原文说的同样是具备社交能力的老鼠，而题干问的是不具备社交能力的老鼠在实验中做了什么，属于张冠李戴。
23.【答案】B expected it to do the same in return
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Quinn和the rats released the social robots往下定位到第四五段，第五段最后一句This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn. Quinn说：这可能会让老鼠更好地记住早些时候已经释放了机器人，并希望机器人在它们被困住时能回报它们的恩惠。正确答案B expected it to do the same in return是原文的同义替换。干扰项A的 tried to practice a means of escape试图尝试一种逃跑的方法，原文并未提及，属于无中生有。选项C的 wanted to display their intelligence想要展示它们的智慧，文中并未提到，属于无中生有。选项D的considered that an interesting game觉得是个有趣的游戏在原文当中也没有体现，属于无中生有。
24.【答案】C respond more to actions than to looks
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词James Wiles定位到第六七段，尾段尾句We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too, says Wiles. Wiles说：“我们人类似乎对机器人很着迷，事实证明其他动物也很着迷。”再结合尾段前面部分的阐述，会发现正确答案C respond more to actions than to looks对行动的反应多于对外表的反应，是原文的类似表达。干扰项A的can remember other rat's facial features能够记住其他老鼠的面部特征，与原文内容不符，原文第六段说的是假设赋予机器老鼠面部特征，那都不重要，属于偷换概念。选项B的differentiate smells better than sizes与体型大小相比，能够更好地区分气味，原文中只提到赋予机器老鼠真老鼠的气味，与原文不符，属于偷换概念。选项D的can be scared by a plastic box on wheels会被装有轮子的塑料盒子吓坏，文中机器老鼠只是装有轮子的塑料盒子，还是属于偷换概念。
25.【答案】D are more sensitive to social cues than expected
解析：本题目为推断题，考察基于全文主旨进行推断。题干并没有具体关键词，因此需要通过选项回到文中逐一对应。正确答案D are more sensitive to social cues than expected对社交线索比预期更敏感，与原文尾段首句The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots.（这一发现显示了老鼠对社交暗示的敏感程度，即使是来自基本机器老鼠的社交暗示）属于类似表达。选项A的appear to be adaptable to new surroundings似乎能适应新环境，在文中并未提及，属于无中生有。选项B的are more socially active than other animals比其他动物更活跃，文中只提到其他动物也一样会对机器人着迷，属于偷换概念。干扰项C的behave differently from children in socializing在社交活动中表现得与孩子不同，与原文内容相反，原文内容指的是孩子们倾向于把机器人当作人来对待，即使他们只显示简单的社会信号。这一点与老鼠是一样的，属于正反混淆。
It is true that CEO pay has gone up-top ones may make 300 times the pay of typical workers on average, and since the mid-1970s CEO pay for large publicly traded American corporations has, by varying estimates, gone up by about 500% The typical CEO of a top American corporation now makes about S18.9 million a year.
The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly. The efforts of America's highest-earning 1% have been one of the more dynamic elements of the global economy. It's not popular to say, but one reason their pay has gone up so much is that CEOs really have upped their game relative to many other workers in the U.S. economy.
Today's CEO, at least for major American firms, must have many mere skills than simply being able to“run the company" CEOs must have a good sense of financial markets and maybe even how the company should trade in them. They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. Then there' s the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before,with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. To lead in that system requires knowledge that is farly mind-boggling plus, virtually all major American companies are beyond this major CEOs still have to do all the day-to-day work they have always done.
The common idea that high CEO pay is mainly about ripping people off doesn't explain history very well. By most measures, corporate governmance has become a lot tighter and more rigorous since the 1970s. Yet it is principally during this period of stronger govemnance that CEO pay has been high and rising. That suggests it is in the broader corporate interest to recruit top candidates for increasingly tough jobs.”
Furthermore, the highest CEO salaries are paid to outside candidates, not to the cozy insider picks, another sign that high CEO pay is not some kind of depredation at the expense of the rest of the company. And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.
26. Which of the following has contributed to CEO pay rise?
[A] The growth in the number of corporations
[B] The general pay rise with a better economy
[C] Increased business opportunities for top firms
[D] Close cooperation among leading economies
27. Compared with their predecessors, today's CEOs are required to______
[A] foster a stronger sense of teamwork
[B] finance more research and development
[C] establish closer ties with tech companies
[D] operate more globalized companies
28. CEO pay has been rising since the 1970s despite______
[A] continual internal opposition
[B] strict corporate governance
[C] conservative business strategies
[D] Repeated government warnings
29. High CEO pay can be justified by the fact that it helps______
[A] confirm the status of CEOs
[B] motivate inside candidates
[C] boost the efficiency of CEOs
[D] increase corporate value
30. The most suitable title for this text would be______
[A] CEOs Are Not Overpaid
[B] CEO Pay: Past and Present
[C] CEOs' challenges of Today
[D] CEO Traits: Not Easy to Define
26.【答案】C Increased business opportunities for top firms
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词CEO pay rise及题干中对CEO薪酬增加原因的提问，定位到第二段首句The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly.了解CEO薪酬增长的最佳模式是，CEO人才在一个顶级公司的商业机会迅速增长的世界里是有限的。正确答案C Increased business opportunities for top firms增加顶级公司商业机会的增加。干扰项A的The growth in the number of corporations公司数量的增长，文中并不是说公司数量而是商业机会，属于偷换概念。选项B的The general pay rise with a better economy好转的经济带来的普遍加薪，文中并未提到better economy，属于无中生有。选项D的Close cooperation among leading economies 主要经济体之间的密切合作，文中也并未提到经济体之间的何做，属于无中生有。